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EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION

Ancient Egypt is a land of mysteries. It's famous for wonderful architecture, astronomy, and art

Ancient Egypt is a land of mysteries. Mystery surrounds its origins its religion and its monumental architecture: colossal temples, pyramids and the enormous Sphinx. The Egyptian pyramids are the most famous of all the ancient monuments.

Wonderful Architecture in Egypt

The Pyramids at Giza

The most famous pyramids are found at Giza. They were built by three pharaohs during second half of the third millennium BC. The largest of the three pyramids is the Great pyramid of Cheops at Giza. It comprised of 2,5 million limestone blocks weighing 2.5 tonnes. It was 146.6 metres (481 feet) tall and 230.3 metres (756 feet) square. The capstones of all the pyramids were made of solid polished granite. The great pyramid is open to the public. Its entrance is through a narrow passage on the north side, thus leading to a sloping corridor with a low ceiling where one has a bend over while climbing a ramp. The ramp leads to a passage with a high ceiling called the Grand Gallery, from where it leads to the king’s burial chamber.

Pyramids at Giza
Pyramids at Giza

The Sphinx at Giza

The Great Sphinx at Giza near Cairo is the most famous sculpture in the world. It has the body of a lion and the head of a human and represents Ra Horakty, a form of Sun God and the incarnation of royal powers and the protector of the temple doors. During the eighteenth dynasty, it was popularly known as the “Horus of the Horizon” and “Horus of the Necropolis”. The Sphinx is located at a short distance from the Great Pyramid. Its carved out of a natural limestone outcrop and is 19,8 metres (65 feet) high and 73.2 metres (240 feet) long.

 Sphinx at Giza
Sphinx at Giza

The Mastaba Tombs

Mastaba tombs were built on the Western side of the Nile River (a symbol of death, where sun falls into the under world) they surround the pyramids of the old Kingdoms. Statuettes known as Shabti was placed in the tombs to perform work on behalf of the deceased. A false door was carved on the interior tombs wall near the entrance to the shaft. For the comfort of the deceased, the burial chamber was filled with food offerings and material goods and the walls were decorated with the scenes of daily activities.

 Mastaba tombs
Mastaba tombs

Why Is The Valley of The Kings So Famous

The Valley of the Kings is well known for it’s tombs. For many years, the kings, queens and nobles of the New Kingdom were buried in this valley. The tombs were cut into the limestone rock near a dried up river valley on the Western side of Nile river. The walls displayed the magnificent murals, which depicted the scenes of daily life and the land of gods.

 The Valley of the Kings
The Valley of the Kings

The Famous Tutankhamun’s Tomb

Tutankhamun’s Tomb is located in the Valley of the Kings. At the entrance of the tomb, there is a flight of stairs leading to the short corridor. The first room is the antechamber where household items for Tutankhamun’s voyage to eternity were found. The walls of burial chamber were painted with scenes of Tutankhamun in the after-world.

 Tutankhamun’s Tomb
Tutankhamun’s Tomb

The Famous Luxor Temple

This temple is located a mile South of Karnak Temple. Luxor temples were once joined by an avenue lines with two rows of human headed stone Sphinxes; guardians of the temple gates and the underworld. The temple stands on the site of a New Kingdom building commissioned by Amenhotop III in 1380 BC, Unlike Karmak, it was not enhanced by later Pharaohs.

 Luxor temple
Luxor temple

The Famous Karmak Temple

It is located at the northern end of the town of Luxor. It has three main sacred areas that honour three gods, Montu, an ancient local warrior, god Ameen, the chief god of Thebes and the goddess Mut, wife of Ameen and Khonse. The son of Ameen and Mut were members of the sacred family known as the Theban Triad.

The temple was constructed in the middle kingdom and completed in New Kingdom. The temple covers two hectares of land, as every successive king of this era added to the temple. It had four courtyards, ten pylons, a sacred lake and many building.

 Karmak Temple
Karmak Temple

Egyptian Gods

Who Was Osiris?

Osiris was one of the principal Egyptian gods who appeared in funerary texts during pyramid age. According to the Egyptian mythology, he was murdered by his brother Seth, then brought back to life Isis. Osiris and Isis had a son named Horus. Together, they represent to holy family of god, goddess and divine child.

Who Was Horus?

Horus was the falcon headed god of Egypt. He was the son of Osiris anf Isis, the divine child. His name means “ he who is above” and  “ he who is distant”. Horus is depicted as a falcon wearing a crown with a cobra or the double crown of Egypt. He has become one of the most commonly used symbol of Egypt seen on the Egyptian airplanes, hotels and restaurants throughout the land.

 Horus God
Horus God

Who Was Galen?

He was an anatomist, physiologist and theoretical physician of all time during 129 – 199. He was born in Perganum and studied in Smyrna and Alexandria and was appointed surgeon of gladiators in Perganun. He discovered that arteries contain blood and not air as had been taught upto his time. He wrote more than 400 books throughout the middle ages on medical theory.

Astronomy, Art, Entertainment

The Egyptian Calendar

The Egyptian calendar was based on a year of 365 days with twelve months and three seasons. Each month had three ten day weeks for a total of 30 days, while the last five days corresponded to the birthdays of five deities, Osiris, Isis, Horus, Seth and Nepthys. As the the Egyptians did not take leap year into account their calendar got further and further away from the seasons. Besides the civic calendar, there was a religious calendar that displayed the festivals and ceremonies associated with particular deities and temples. This was based on 295 days per month.

Egyptian Calendar
Egyptian Calendar

What Is Hieroglyphics?

Hieroglyphics are original form of writing from which others forms evolved like hieratic and demotic. Hieratic was a simplified form of Hieroglyphics used for administrative, business purposes and for literary scientific and religious texts. The last Hieroglyphic text was written at the temple of Philae in AD.450.

 Hieroglyphics
Hieroglyphics

Who Were The Scribes?

Scribes were the men who, at a youngest age, mastered the skill of writing and wrote the ancient language. A Scribe’s equipment consisted of a stone of wooden palette containing two cakes of ink, usually red and black, a leather bag or pot filled with water and a set of reed bushes.

What Do You Know About Mummification

The ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. Later they started burying their dead in coffins to protect them from wild animals in the desert, which decayed when they were not exposed to the hot, dry sand of the desert.

Later on, they developed a method of preserving bodies, so that they would remain life like. The process included embalming, as the body was wrapped in strips of linen. This process is called mummification.

Mummies
Mummies

What Were The Sources of Their Recreation?

Hunting and Fishing – pharaohs and nobles participated in hunting, fishing and fowling expeditions, a means of recreation that had ritualistic and religious significance. Hunting scenes often depicted on temple walls and tombs reinforce the powers of kings and nobles, deer, rabbit, gazelles, oryx, antelopes, lions were hunted for their meat and skins.

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